Commonly Used Latin in Scholarly Manuscripts
Paul V. Hartman

     The following appear as: Latin word(s), pronunciations (L=Latin,
  E=English), meaning, and comments.

   1. c      circa                 KIHR-kah (L)   SIR-kah (E)
     "about"     Indicates uncertainty in a date.
                 "Chaucer was born c AD 1340"

   2. e.g.   exempli gratia        eks-EHM-plee GRAH-te-ah
     "for instance"          When reading aloud, say "for example"

   3. et al       et alia          et AH-lee-ah
     "and others"        When reading aloud, say "and others"

   4. etc.        et cetera     et KAY-teh-rah (L)  et SET-er-ah (E)
     "and so on"    Applies to things, not persons.
                    When reading aloud, say et-SET-er-ah.

   5. Ibid        ibidem        IH-bih-dem (L)      IB-e-dem (E)
     "in the same place"      A reference in a footnote, bibliography, 
                           etc., with identical source as the previous.
                        Capitalized and italic, as in: "Ibid., p.102"
                            Pronounce the shorter form EYE-bid.

   6. Id          idem          EE-dem (L)     ID-em (E)
     "the same"         Similar to Ibid, but refers to the previously
                        mentioned author, not the work.  "Id., p.102"

   7. i.e.   id est             ID EST (L and E)
     "that is"         Clarifies a statement just made. It does not
                      mean "for example". As in: "He went to Stonegate 
                          (i.e. north) before turning toward the sea."

   8. loc. cit.   loco citato         LAW-koh kih-TAH-toh (L)
                                      LOH-koh sigh-TAH-toh (E)
     "in the place cited"       Like Ibid and Id, refers to something
                            already mentioned, in this case a previously 
                       mentioned passage, as in: "Shakespeare, loc. cit." 

   9. N.B.   nota bene                NAW-tah BEH-neh (L and E)
     "take notice"; "note well"   Used to call attention to what follows.

   10. op. cit.   opere citato        AW-peh-reh kih-TAH-toh (L and E)
     "in the work cited"               "Shakespeare, op. cit., p.706"

   11. q.v.  quod vide                KWAD WE-day (L)     cue-vee (E)
     "which see"           A scholars way of providing a cross reference.
                       A name, phrase, etc., followed by a comma and q.v. 
                        would tell the reader that the name, phrase, etc.,
                           is explained elsewhere in the text.

   12. sic                  SICK
      "thus so"          appearing as (sic), indicates a word or phrase
                       used in text which appears to be misspelled or used
                       incorrectly, but nevertheless is the word or 
                       spelling meant to be used. However, if (sic) is used
                       in text being quoted, the (sic) means "that word is
                       not our error, but the way it was written originally."

   13. vide infra               WE-day IN-frah (L)   Vee-day IN-frah (E)
     "read below"         A scholarly reference to further mention of the
                       topic later on: "you will find out more about this 
                       when you read further." Also: vide supra refers to 
                       something discussed in the text previously.

   14. viz.   videlicet    we-DAY-lih-keht (L)  and vee-DAY-lis-it (E)
     "namely; to wit; it is permitted to see; as follows..."
                            When reading aloud, say "namely", not "viz".

   15. QED                  quod erat demonstrandum
                       Nearly always appears only as the intitials. Which
                       means: "the thing is proven."

   16. c.q.    not a Latin abbreviation;   it is a typesetter's code.
     These letters following a word or name mean that the word is
     spelled correctly even though it looks erroneous. Since it is code 
     from a writer to the printer, it is not supposed to appear in 
     print, though occasionally it does.

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